[UPDATED JUNE 2016] As of February 2, 2016, the World Health Organization has declared Zika Virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus, transmitted via Aedes mosquitos, that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.*
Zika is new to the Americas. Since Brazil reported the first cases of local transmission of the virus in May 2015, it has spread to 21 countries and territories* of the Americas (as of 23 January 2016).** As of the past few months, some countries were suggesting that women wait to become pregnant until the local cases of Zika virus have abated.
There are two main reasons for the virus's rapid spread: (1) the population of the Americas had not previously been exposed to Zika and therefore lacks immunity, and (2) Aedes mosquitoes—the main vector for Zika transmission—are present in all the region's countries except Canada and continental Chile. PAHO anticipates that Zika virus will continue to spread and will likely reach all countries and territories of the region where Aedes mosquitoes are found.
The most effective forms of prevention are
- Reducing mosquito populations by eliminating their potential breeding sites, especially containers and other items (such as discarded tires) that can collect water in and around households
- Using personal protection measures to prevent mosquito bites
The Health COMpass provies below a collection of project materials as well as tools for social and behavior change communication to prevent Zika virus infection. Please add your own materials by registering on the Health COMpass and contributing.
Banner photo: Members of the Brazilian Air Force pose with a Zika mosquito mascot - credit St. Johnson, Forca Aerea Brasilia, Johnson Barros, retrieved from Flickr
The aim of this document is to provide interim guidance for interventions to reduce the risk of maternal Zika virus infection and to manage potential complications during pregnancy.
This mobile phone application is available for both iPhone and Android phones. It offers general information about the virus, suspected complications, and treatment options.
On February 16, 2016, WHO launched a global Strategic Response Framework and Joint Operations Plan to guide the international response to the spread of Zika virus infection and the neonatal malformations and neurological conditions associated with it.
This set of infographics contain basic information about the Zika Virus:
- What is Zika
- What symptoms can it cause?
- How soon do the symptoms begin?
- How many people get symptoms?
- How is it prevented?
- Is there treatment?
This page tracks Zika virus disease outbreaks. It can be used to provide up to the minute information/data for SBCC project materials and presentations.
This page will provide the latest answers to frequently asked questionsa bout Zika. It is a good resource for anyone needing background information on the virus, and for anticipating questions from the public and from medical personnel.
Current questions include:
This web page provides answers to frequently asked questions about the Zika Virus and its affect on unborn babies.
A page which describes how the virus is spread, Zika and pregnancy, signs and symptoms, treatment, when to see a health worker, and what to do to prevent mosquito bites.
A page which describes the ways in which a community can protect against mosquito-borne illnesses. The page includes
- Removing mosquito breeding sites around the house and community
- Using insecticides
Crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) )is the strategy used to provide information that allows an individual, stakeholders, or an entire community to make the best possible decisions during a crisis emergency event. The purpose of a public health response to a crisis is to efficiently and effectively reduce and prevent illness, injury, and death and return individuals and communities to normal.
An online course which covers several aspects of emergency risk communication.
This guide is to help local leaders and community organizers bring together the community to help plan for disease outbreaks and other emergencies.
To assist in the planning, development and implementation of social media activities, several guidelines and tools were developed to provide critical information on lessons learned, best practices, clearance information and security requirements.
This toolkit was designed to provide guidance and to share lessons learned in more than three years of integrating social media into CDC health communication campaigns, activities and emergency response efforts.
This site offers a comprehensive overview of the various forms of social media, why and how it is used, and how to apply this format to any enterprise or organization's work.
The site includes segments on:
Quiz with six questions - can be used in a health facility, with students, or with general public.
The questions are:
Poster explaining health care if one is sill with chikungunya, dengue, or Zika viruses. Primarily, it is important to protect oneself and others from mosquito bites during the first week of illness.
As part of the prevention campaign regarding the Zika Virus, the US CDC offers this poster warning travelers about the dangers of mosquito bites.
It urges travelers to:
A poster warning people planning to travel to the American Tropics of the dangers of mosquito bites - for prevetnion of dengue, Zika virus, and Chikungunya.
Prevention information includes:
- Use insect repellent
- Use air conditioning or window/door screens
- Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants
Developed in 2011, this is an SBCC strategy for community-level programs in behavior change related to TB, malaria and HIV prevention.
A poster aimed at homeowners and community members, listing what they can do to control the mosquitoes that cause deadly diseases.
The advice listed includes:
This guide presents the steps necessary for making a community emergency plan as a part of the community mobilization participatory process. The purpose of the guide is to get the community organized and involved in the process of making their own decisions to resolve their health problems.