The ECHO Study Report
Over the past 25 years, as the HIV epidemic took hold in many countries, a number of observational research studies suggested a possible increased risk of HIV acquisition for women using progestogen-only injectables, particularly DMPA-IM. Because of limitations in the design of these studies, however, it was not possible to determine whether HIV infections were due to the type of contraceptive method used or other factors.
The ECHO Study (Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes) was carried out in four countries with settings of high HIV incidence ‒ Eswatini, Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. A total of 7829 sexually active HIV-negative women aged 16 to 35 years who wanted to use a modern method of contraception were enrolled and were randomly assigned to one of the three methods.
Among the 7829 women who took part in the study, 397 HIV infections occurred. There was no statistical difference in the rate of acquisition of HIV among the women. 143 infections were in women who used DMPA-IM, 138 were in women who used a copper-bearing IUD and 116 in women who used a levonorgesterel implant. The study therefore found no link between HIV infection and contraceptive methods. The study was reported in the Lancet on June 13, 2019.
More ECHO Study resources
- Creating Mobile Health Solutions for Behaviour Change: A Study of Eight Services in the mNutrition Initiative Portfolio
- Community Communication MNCH e-Manual: Participatory Health Promotion Sessions
- Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) Study
- Hormonal Contraception and HIV- Technical Update
- Contraception and HIV: What Do the Evidence and WHO Technical Statement Mean for Programs?
- Strategic Communication for Hormonal Contraception and HIV: An Evidence Review
- Transforming the Private Sector to Support Universal Malaria Diagnostic Coverage
- Hormonal Contraceptive Eligibility for Women at High Risk of HIV: Guidance Statement
- HTSP Project Briefs: Niger, Togo
- Communication sur le COVID-19
- Adaptation of Hormonal Contraceptive and HIV Communication Strategy in Malawi
- Beyond Bias Literature Review and Expert Interviews on Provider Bias in the Provision of Youth Contraceptive Services:
- Adapting the Framework: The Swaziland Experience
- Exploring the Web of Desire: The Story of Intersexions
- SBCC in Support of Malaria in Pregnancy Control Programming: A Five Country Review
June 17, 2019