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Over the past 25 years, as the HIV epidemic took hold in many countries, a number of observational research studies suggested a possible increased risk of HIV acquisition for women using progestogen-only injectables, particularly DMPA-IM.

The Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) trial was launched in 2015 to test the comparative risk of HIV acquisition among women using one of the following three contraceptive methods: depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscular (DMPA-IM), also known as Depo-Provera, two-rod levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant (LNG-Implant), branded as Jadelle, and the copper intrauterine device (Copper-IUD). 

Covering various issues in behavioral economics, this guide offers perspectives on the many topics, including:

  • Incentivization
  • Ethics
  • Taxonomy
  • BE and Marketing
  • Gender Equality
  • Pro-environmental Behavior
  • Intuitive Behavioral Design


This guide was designed to provide UNICEF program planners with accessible and engaging information on social norms, the role they play in perpetuating or changing harmful behaviors, and best practices for programming. 

DHIS2 is a tool for collection, validation, analysis, and presentation of aggregate and patient-based statistical data, tailored (but not limited) to integrated health information management activities.