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This review assesses the available peer-reviewed literature on the association between smoking and COVID-19, including 1) risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2; 2) hospitalization with COVID-19; and 3) severity of COVID-19 outcomes amongst hospitalized patients such as admission into intensive care units (ICU), use of ventilators and death.

This Technical Brief presents workarounds—tips and tricks to use digital platforms—to conduct pretests virtually. In this document, two instances for virtual pretesting are presented: the development of social and behavior change (SBC) materials and the development of job aids. Both use similar processes, but with specific differences that are highlighted in this document.

Self-care can mean better, more accessible, participatory, affordable, quality healthcare. In the case of the emergency contraceptive pill or acetaminophen when available over the counter, such self-care will require minimal or no interaction with a health worker. However, frequently, for COVID-19 and many health interventions, self-care requires a carefully choreographed set of interactions between health workers and individuals to enable people to take greater control over their healthcare.

Self-care interventions are among the most promising and exciting new approaches to improve health and well-being, both from a health systems perspective and for people who use these interventions. The World Health Organization (WHO) uses the following working definition of self-care: Self-care is the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote health, prevent disease, maintain health, and cope with illness and disability with or without the support of a health- care provider

The Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP) has more than 30 years of experience in strategic social and behavior change communication (SBCC) and has used behavioral economics (BE) concepts over the past decades to influence how and why people make choices that affect their own health and well being and that of their families and communities.

This document provides members of the primary health care (PHC) community with foundational messages to use in communication and advocacy efforts about how and why countries, global decision-makers and donors can – and must – center PHC as a key component of the COVID-19 response in the weeks and months to come.

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